Lesghi rugs are sometimes mistaken for Shirvans, but generally the large eight-pointed medallions occupying the field are flatter than those of Shirvan, and the corners at the diagonals where the straight lines inter­sect have arrowhead forms. Generally, there are more colours in Lesghi rugs, with red, blue, ivory and green predominating, and some tan and yellow. Texture is firm though the knots may be as few as 5.5 to the sq cm (36 sq in), but they may also range up to around 16.50 sq cm (100 sq in).


These rugs, which often resemble Kazaks, are much more loosely woven, so less survived to become antiques. In the Gendje there may be as many as four to eight shoots of red weft between every two rows of knots and the warps are visible from the back, and may be of wool or goat-hair. There are no designs that are typical, and this also applies to the borders

. Karabagh

These rugs are woven in an area adjacent to the Persian border, and the Persian influence is very apparent in the flowing type of design, especially in the borders, which may consist of a wavy vine and flora arrangement. The reds of these rugs are very characteristic, having a marked pinkish tendency not seen in any other Caucasian pieces, while the indigo blues are almost black. Medium and light blues are also used, though some­what sparingly, and ivory white and yellow. Occasionally there is green.
In the field the patterns tend towards the use of medallions, which can be either lightly or heavily ornamented. Knotting tends to be coarse, varying from 6.5 to 16.5 to the sq cm (42 to 100 sq in), while the texture is loose. The warp is wool and is not very apparent from the back of the rug, which has a ribbed appearance. The weft is also of wool, which is sometimes dyed red, and there are two shoots between every two rows of knots.


Within this group there are two main types - in one the field is covered with an all-over pattern, and in the other a pole medallion is set upon a shaped field of plain colour and the corners covered with a closely packed all-over design.
In the first type the most common design is the Herati, so called because it was very common in rugs from Herat. It consists of a central quadrant

with a rosette in the centre, from the corners of which palmettes spring. From the sides of the quadrant stalks extend with curved serrated leaves. This pattern is repeated all over the field, so closely set that it almost obscures the ground colour of the carpet. When the Herati pattern is used there are usually small cut-off corners to the field.
Less frequently seen is a repetitive form of the Gul-i-Hinnai pattern a design based upon the henna plant, with light coloured flowers.

The most common border design is the well-known 'turtle' style, which is really a palmette with an extension on either side at the top which gives the impression of a turtle with clippers. These are alternatively reversed and joined together by dainty tendrils and vines. Most frequently the borders have an almond green ground which has been attacked by the dye used so that the bordei" is embossed against the green ground. Other borders used are generally based upon a vine and rosette combination.
Colours used are a deep indigo blue and red, with some light blue, green, yellow and ivory. Texture is firm, and knotting varies from coarse with 8.75 knots to the sq cm (56 sq in) to fairly fine with up to 36.25 (234), the knots being Persian. Warp and weft are made of cotton.


It is normal to refer to antique carpets from this area as Ispahans, and modern products as Isfahans. Both types demonstrate superb workman­ship, the antique types going back to late 16th and 17th centuries when Isfahan was the newly created capital of Shah Abbas.
The most usual design is, appropriately, the Shah Abbas, which con­sists of intricate scrolls and arabesques terminating in palmettes. In the very old pieces cloudbands were often introduced. Borders were wide, with large palmettes and other floral and foliate motifs. In the 16th century the motifs were small and the design well balanced, but with time the designs became larger. Usual colours were a red field with dark blue border, though occasionally a blue field turns up with a dark green border. Touches of ivory and yellow were also used. Almost all the pieces from this period are large carpet sizes.
Warps and wefts are mostly cotton, though wool was also used; some­times cotton and wool were twisted together. The Turkish knot is used, varying from 7.5 to 19.5 knots to the sq cm (48 to 126 sq in). The texture is firm and the back flat.


The weavers of Kashan produced an astonishing number of excellent pieces of tight stout weave and superb designing, especially in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The later pieces are all well designed with the fields filled with flowing foliate designs in rich ruby reds, shades of blue, green, ivory, yellow and a characteristic light brown. The outer guard stripe of the border almost invariably consists of a reciprocal trefoil or more rarely a sawtooth pattern, while the secondary guards carry a flower and tendril pattern.
Texture is extremely firm and the Persian knots very fine, varying from 39.75 to 74.5 to the sq cm (256 to 480 sq in) the weave being so tight that the sides often curl under. Warps are usually cotton, and the fine cotton wefts are normally dyed blue giving the back of the rug a characteristic blue appearance.

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